Vertigo: Causes, Types And Symptoms

Vertigo: Causes, Types And Symptoms

When we speak of vertigo we refer to the feeling of lack of balance. But there is not just one type but there are different kinds.

The so-called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common type of vertigo. It is due to a relocation of the group of calcium crystals (known jointly with the name of otoconia), that in normal conditions are in the Utricule of the inner ear and that, for some reason, they leave their original position and migrate, with The time, to one of the semicircular canals (usually towards the posterior canal, due to its anatomical position).

When the head rotates (in particular when the body is placed in decubitus), the change of its orientation with respect to the direction of the force of gravity causes a movement of the heavier crystals, causing an abnormal displacement of the internal fluid of the channel (The so-called endolymph) and, consequently, the sudden sensation of vertigo. The sensation arises without any additional complications.

We can classify it in:

Central Vertigo:  It is characterized by being continuous, hard days and there are no auditory alterations nor are there neurovegetative symptoms. Its appearance of a central vertigo is slow and progressive, with a sensation of instability, scarce vegetative manifestations and, above all, a very slow and gradual recovery.

Vertigo: Causes, Types And SymptomsIt is of multifactorial origin:

  • Vascular Vertigo: Vertebrobasilar Syndrome, Spinal Syndrome.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Migraine headaches.
  • Tumor processes that affect the brain at the level of the cerebellar angle.
  • Vascular affections, presenting neurological symptoms such as: an alteration of the language, facial paralysis, etc., and vertebra-basilar insufficiency that affects the brainstem.
  • Viral infections of the inner ear that causes laberintinitis.
  • Wernicke’s disease.

Peripheral vertigo:  It presents as sudden crises of short duration, perhaps minutes or hours and is accompanied by auditory manifestations like the sensation of fullness, hypoacusis and tinnitus, as well as neurovegetative symptoms (sweating, tachycardia, hypotension and nausea).

Its origin can be:

  • There so-called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common type of vertigo.
  • Meniere syndrome, due to increased membranous pressures of the inner ear.
  • The cranial nerve VIII neuron (the so-called vestibulocochlear nerve or auditory-vestibular nerve or statoacoustic nerve).
  • Inflammatory-infectious processes (labyrinthitis, fractures of the cliff).
  • Others, such as ototoxicity, otosclerosis, and Paget’s disease.

The vestibular neuritis is an acute and intense picture accompanied by the whole context with nausea, vomiting and instability, aggravated by head movements or position change and improvement to stare at a place. There may be nystagmus and tinnitus (hearing beeps in the inside of the head, not in reality), usually lasts for a few days and gives in spontaneously. It is normal for it to reappear in outbreaks and to leave residual changes of instability in the gait.

The labyrinthitis, occurs when ignited causes the labyrinth infectious (virus or bacteria), which generates vertigo, which is associated with headache, fever or other signs of infection. In order for vertigo to subside, the infectious cause must be treated.

The perilymphatic fistulas, usually due to hyperbaric traumatic injuries (coughing or sneezing) or (i.e. an increase in air pressure on the ear, as when diving). It presents as vertigo of position and lack of hearing that is variable, lasts a few days and yields alone.

The benign positional vertigo is the most frequent dizziness, are acute conditions of seconds long due, as the name says, changes in body posture. They appear only with certain movements or positions for a few weeks to yield. He usually repeats the process for years.

Causes and factors to take into account.

The vertigo is of multifactorial origin, that is to say, there are many reasons why a person can perceive this hallucination.

  • Vertebrobasilar syndrome, spinal cord syndrome.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Migraine headaches.
  • Tumor processes that affect the brain at the level of the cerebellar angle.
  • Vascular affections, presenting neurological symptoms such as: an alteration of the language, facial paralysis, etc., and vertebro-basilar insufficiency that affects the brainstem.
  • Syringomyelia, formation of a cyst in the spinal cord.
  • Viral infections of the inner and middle ear that causes labyrinthitis.
  • Trauma to the head.
  • Infections with some viruses.
  • Side effects to some medications.

More common symptoms:

  • Loss of sense of balance.
  • Sickness
  • Vomiting
  • Headache

Feeling that everything is spinning without control … (see video for all symptoms)

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